TNBC Challenge: Oligonucleotide Aptamers for New Imaging and Therapy Modalities
Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer
Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test. Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer.
Compared to other breast cancers, triple-negative breast cancer TNBC usually affects younger patients, is larger in size, of higher grade and is biologically more aggressive. To date, conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the only available treatment for TNBC because it lacks expression of the estrogen receptor ER , progesterone receptor PR and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2 , and no alternative targetable molecules have been identified so far. The high biological and clinical heterogeneity adds a further challenge to TNBC management and requires the identification of new biomarkers to improve detection by imaging, thus allowing the specific treatment of each individual TNBC subtype. The Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment SELEX technique holds great promise to the search for novel targetable biomarkers, and aptamer-based molecular approaches have the potential to overcome obstacles of current imaging and therapy modalities. However, defining TNBC through the absence of biological markers is limiting because of the high heterogeneity of this group of cancers, which include different subtypes according to unique histological and molecular characteristics, as well as to a distinct natural history and responsiveness to treatment.